# 辈分称呼

# 辈分称呼

1、祖辈

（1）祖：在古代，广义是指所有父辈以上的男性先辈，狭义则是指祖父。
（2）祖父：又称为“王父”、“大父”、“祖君”。在古代，“公”、“太公”、“翁”也可用来称呼祖父；如今对祖父最常见的称呼是“爷爷”。
（3）祖母：又可以称为“大母”、“王母”、“重慈”。又因古人有妻有妾，所以祖母又有“季祖母”、“庶祖母”、“妾祖母”之分。祖母之称古今通用。
（4）婆：是古代对成年妇女的很普遍的称呼，也可以用来称祖母。
（5）奶奶：是今天对祖母的普遍称呼，古代的使用较晚。作为称谓，“奶”最早是作为乳母之称，以后又用以称母亲，又作为对以婚妇女的较广义的称呼。
（6）堂祖父、从祖父、伯公、伯祖、伯翁、叔公、叔祖、叔翁等：这些是对祖父的兄弟的称谓。
（7）堂祖母、从祖母、伯婆、伯祖母、叔婆、叔祖母等：这些是对祖父兄弟妻子的称谓。
2、曾祖辈
（1）曾祖：即祖父之父。古代还有“太翁”、“曾翁”、“曾大父”、“大王父”、“王大父”、“太公”、“曾太公”等称呼，比较特殊的是称“曾门”。
（2）曾祖母：指曾祖之妻，还可以称为“太婆”、“曾祖王母”、“太奶”，其中较常见的为“太婆”。
3、高祖辈
（1）高祖：即曾祖之父，古今多称为高祖父，也有称为“高祖王父”、“高门”。但需注意的是，古代对高祖之上的历代远祖也可称为高祖。
（2）高祖母：指高祖之妻，或称“高王祖母”。
4、父母
（1）父母：父母是亲属中最重要的亲属，除“父母”、“双亲”、“二老”、“爹娘”等古今通用的合称外还有“高堂”、“严君”、“尊亲”、“严亲”、“两亲”、“亲闱”等以及文人笔下的“所生”、“椿萱”等对父母的代称。
（2）父、父亲：是对父亲古今习见的称呼，还可以称父亲为“公”、“翁”、“尊”、“大人”、“严君”、“爷”、“爹”、“爸”、“老子”等。
（3）尊：古代常见的敬称用语，称自己的父亲可称“家尊”，称对方的父亲则称“令尊”。
（4）爷：古代对成年男子较广义的称呼，宋代开始用作对祖父之称，魏晋南北朝就用作对父亲之称，或写作“耶”。
（5）母：是对母亲最常见的称呼。而在古代对母亲的称谓中，大都和“母”相似，又用作对成年妇女或老年妇女的泛称。其中较重要的有：“婆”、“娘”、“娘娘”、“姥”、“大人”、“妈”、“慈”、“家家”和“姊姊”等。
（6）继母:如果自己的母亲去世、离异或被父辈逐出，则称续娶之妻为继母、继亲、后母、假母、续母。
（7）出母:如果自己的母亲离家之后还能相见，则称为出母。
（8）生母：在古代一夫多妻制的家庭中，称自己的生身母亲为“生母”或“本生母”。
（9）庶母：在古代一夫多妻制的家庭中，如果自己的生母是正妻，则称父亲之妾为“庶母”、“少母”、“诸母”、“妾母”。
（10）家家和姊姊:是中古时期对母亲的两种特殊称呼。
（11）姨:在古代一夫多妻制的家庭中，无论自己的生母是妻或妾，对父亲的妾都可以称为“姨”、“姨姨”、“阿姨”。
(12)义父：指是在自己的父亲之外再拜认某人为父，这个“义”字有外加、假、代、自愿等意。 (13)义母：指是在自己的母亲之外再拜认某人为母。
5、与父亲相关的亲属
（1）诸父、诸母：是对父亲的兄弟及其妻室的统称。
（2）世父：对父亲的兄弟的称谓，现在更多的场合是称“伯父”、“叔父” 或简称“伯”、“叔”。古人偶尔将几个叔父按伯、仲、叔、季的排行次序，分别称为“伯父”、“仲父”、“叔父”、“季父”。 （3）伯母、叔母：是对父亲的兄弟的妻室的称呼。
（4）从父：对父亲的叔伯兄弟可统称“从父”，又可分别称为“从伯”、“从叔”。
（5）姑：对父亲的姊妹可称为“姑”（沿用至今），又可以称为“诸姑”、“姑姊”、“姑妹”，对已婚者一般都称为“姑母”、“姑妈”，与今不同的是偶尔也称“姑娘”。
（6）姑父：对姑母的丈夫，既可称为“姑父”、“姑丈”，又可以称为“姑婿”、“姑夫”。
（7）表兄弟：对姑母的子的称谓。
（8）表姊妹：对姑母的女的称谓。

6、与母亲相关的亲属
（1）外祖父：对母亲的父亲，称其为“外祖父”（与今同），又可称为“外翁”、“外大人”、“家公”、“老爷”等。
（2）外祖母：对母亲的母亲，称为“外祖母”、“外婆”（与今同），又称为“姥姥”、“老老”等。
（3）舅：对母亲的兄弟，古今均称“舅”，在不同场合，可加上一些修饰或补充性文字，如：“舅氏”、“舅父”、“嫡舅”、“元舅”、“堂舅”等。
（4）舅母：对舅父之妻的称谓。
（5）姨母：对母亲姊妹的称呼，先秦时称为“从母”，秦汉以来则称为“姨母”，或称为“姨娘”、“姨婆”、“姨妈”等。
（6）姨父：对姨母之夫称为“姨夫”或“姨父”。姨母之子女也称“表兄弟”、“表姊妹”。 （无论是舅父之女、姨母之女，还是姑母之女，都可以以“表兄弟”、“表姊妹”相称，古人统称为“诸表”。）
7、考妣 “考”和“妣”在先秦时是对父母的异称，无论生死均可用。秦汉以来，父母死后仍可称为考妣，但生前不再称考妣，考妣只用来对死去的父母之称。而且，考妣不仅用来称死去的父母，死去的祖辈乃至更早的直系先辈均可用考妣相称（在先秦时则是对先祖的泛称）。
8、夫妻
（1）夫：或作“丈夫”，本是对成年男子的美称，但又用作夫妻之夫。“夫” 加上其它附加成分的表示丈夫意的相关称谓很多，如：“夫子”、“夫君”、“夫主”、“夫婿”等。除此，还可以用“良人”、“郎”、“丈人”、“君”、“老公”、“官人”、“汉子”等称呼丈夫。
（2）妻、妻子：是由古至今对妻的最主要的称呼。在妻之前加上各种附加成分，还有“贤妻”、“良妻”、“仁妻”、“令妻”、“娇妻”等。除此，还可用“妇”、“室”、“君”、“夫人”、“娘子”、“浑家”、“内”、“老婆”、“婆娘”、“太太”等来称呼。
9、与丈夫相关亲属
（1）公：也称公公，对丈夫之父，古称为“舅”，也称为“公”、“公公”。这些称呼正是今天称丈夫之父为“公”、“公公”、“老人公”的前身。
（2）婆：也称婆婆，对丈夫之母，古称为“姑”以及由“姑”派生出的“君姑”、“严姑”、“慈姑”、“阿姑”等。后又称“婆”、“婆婆”。
（3）舅姑、姑舅：是早期对丈夫父母的合称。近者称“公婆”。此外还有一个常见的称呼是“姑章”，或作“姑嫜”。
（4）伯叔：对丈夫的兄弟的称谓，与近代所称的“大伯”、“小叔”是一致的。
（5）小姑：对丈夫妹妹的称谓。
10、与妻子相关亲属
（1）岳丈：是对于妻子之父的称呼，古代还有“泰山”、“冰翁”外舅”“外父”、“妻父”等代称。
（2）岳母：对妻子之母的称谓，或称为“丈母”。
（3）姑、外姑：早期用来对妻子之母的称呼。
（4）舅舅：对妻子兄弟的称呼，或称为“舅”、“舅爷”、“舅子”等，还称为“内兄”、“内弟”、“妻兄”、“妻弟”等。
（5）姨：对妻子的姊妹的称呼，或称“大姨”、“小姨”，也称为“妻妹”、“内妹”。
11、兄弟及与其相关亲属
（1）兄：又称为“昆”。今天则可用“哥”来称呼兄长。有兄弟数人的情况下，称呼中必须表示出排行，或以数字为排行，或用伯、仲、叔、季这些排行常用语等。（“哥”，古代是用得十分广泛的称呼，可以称父、称兄、称弟、称子。）
（2）嫂：对兄的妻子的称谓，或称“嫂嫂”。
（3）弟：是对与兄相对者的称呼。
（4）弟媳：对弟的妻子的称谓，或称“弟妹”。
（5）侄：对兄弟的子女最常见的称呼，也可直接称之为“兄子”、“兄女”，或称为“从子”、“从女”、“犹子”、“犹女”。
12、姊妹及与其相关亲属
（1）女兄、女弟：古代对姊妹的称谓，或直接称姊妹为兄弟。“姊”又称“姐”，与姊相对者称为“妹”。
（2）姊夫、妹夫：对姊妹的丈夫的称呼，也可称为“姊婿”、“妹婿”。
（3）甥：对姊妹之子最普遍的称呼，还称为“外甥”、“甥女”、“外甥女”。
13、子女及与其相关亲属
（1）子：在古代是一个使用范围较广的称呼，秦汉以后主要用作儿子之称。 自己之子可称为“犬子”、“孽子”、“不孝子”等，别人之子又可称为“令子”、“良子”、“不凡子”、“贤子”等。除此，还可用“男”、“子息”、“贱息”、“儿子”、“儿郎”、“儿男”等来称呼子。若有几个儿子则有“长子”、“次男”、“幼子”等称呼。
（2）女：对女儿的主要称呼。对别人的女儿往往称为“爱”或“嫒”，也称为“令嫒”、“闺嫒”。
（3）义子、义女：指不是自己生育的，而是收养的子女，又称“养子”、“养女”、“假子”。同时还有一个常见的代称“螟蛉”。
（4）媳妇：对儿子之妻的称呼。最初只称为“妇”，后因儿子又称为“息”，所以子之妻又称为“息妇”，或写作“媳妇”。
（5）婿：对女儿丈夫的称呼，或称为“女婿”、“子婿”、“郎婿”、“快婿”等。除此，女儿之夫还可以被称为“女夫”、“半子”、“东床”“令坦”。 女婿到了岳丈家，除了岳父、岳母可以称“贤婿”之类，岳家一般人都尊称其为“姑爷”、“姑老爷”。
（6）孙：对儿子的子女的称呼，或称“孙息”、“孙枝”。“孙”又分为“孙儿”、“孙女”，“孙女”又称为“女孙”。
（7）外孙：对女儿的子女的称呼。女姓还可称为“外孙女”。

The Declaration of Independence

IN CONGRESS, JULY 4,
1776 THE UNANIMOUS
DECLARATION OF THE
THIRTEEN UNITED
STATES OF AMERAICA
When in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws Nature and Nature’s God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation.
We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that they are among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. That to secure these rights, governments are instituted among them, deriving their just power from the consent of the governed. That whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shown that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than t right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such government, and to provide new guards for their future security. Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity, which constrains them to alter their former systems of government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is usurpations, all having in direct object tyranny over these States. To prove this, let facts be submitted to a candid world.
He has refused his assent to laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass laws of immediate and pressing importance, unless suspended in their operation till his assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend them.
He has refused to pass other laws for the accommodation of large districts of people, unless those people would relinquish the right of representation in the Legislature, a right inestimable to them and formidable to tyrants only.
He has called together legislative bodies at places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the depository of their public records, for the sole purpose of fatiguing them into compliance with his measures.
He has dissolved representative houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly firmness his invasion on the rights of the people.
He has refused for a long time, after such dissolution, to cause others to be elected ; whereby the legislative powers, incapable of annihilation, have returned to the people at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the meantime exposed to all the dangers of invasion from without and convulsion within.
He has endeavored to prevent the population of these states; for that purpose obstructing the laws of naturalizing of foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their migration hither, and raising the condition of new appropriations of lands.
He has obstructed the administration of justice, by refusing his assent of laws for establishing judiciary powers.
He has made judges dependent on his will alone, for the tenure of their office, and the amount and payment of their salary.
He has erected a multitude of new officers, and sent hither swarms of officers to harass our people, and eat out our substances.
He has kept among us, in times of peace, standing armies without the consent of our legislatures.
He has affected to render the military independent of and superior to the civil power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our constitution, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation.
For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us;
For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for any murder which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States.
For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world;
For imposing taxes on us without our consent;
For depriving us in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury;
For transporting us beyond seas to be tried for pretended offenses;
For abolishing the free systems of English laws in a neighboring Province, establishing therein an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule these Colonies;
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our governments;
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated government here, by declaring us out of his protection and waging war against us.
He has plundered our seas, ravaged our coasts, burnt our towns, and destroyed the lives of our people.
He is at this time transporting large armies of foreign mercenaries to complete the works of death, desolation and tyranny, already begun with circumstances of cruelty and perfidy scarcely parallel in the most barbarous ages, and totally unworthy the head of a civilized nation.
He has constrained our fellow citizens taken captive on the high seas to bear arms against their country, to become the executioners of their friends and brethren, or to fall themselves by their hands.
He has excited domestic insurrection amongst us, and has endeavored to bring on the inhabitants of our frontiers, the merciless Indian savages, whose known rule of warfare, is an undistinguished destruction of all ages, sexes, and conditions.
In every stage of these oppressions we have petitioned for redress in the most humble terms: our repeated petition have been answered only by repeated injury. A prince whose character is thus marked by every act which may define a tyrant is unfit to be the ruler of a free people.
Nor have we been wanting in attention to our British brethren. We have warned them from time to time of attempts by their legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the circumstances of our emigration and settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the ties of our common kindred to disavow these usurpation, which would inevitably interrupt our connections and correspondence. They too have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity, which denounces our separation, and hold them., as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends.
We, therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled , appealing to the supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name, and by authority of the good people of these Colonies, solemnly publish and declare, That these United States Colonies and Independent States; that they are absolved by from all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connection between them and the State, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which Independent States may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor.

# 简体繁体词语对照表

U盘<=>（USB）隨身碟

# 关于零的定义

# 关于零的定义

1. 零乘任何数都得零
2. 任何数除以零均没有意义
3. 零的阶乘是一
4. 任何数的零次方等于一
……

“n个a”相加我们记作“na”

mn = m/(1/n)

a
0 = a
(1/0) = a/0 = ?

n = m/(1/n)，其中n≠0

0*∞ = a。
a/0 = ∞。（根据已知的性质，等式两边同时除以零或同时除以无穷大，都无法运算，这条只能根据乘除互为逆运算这个根本原理猜测出）

lim(n->∞)[(a/n)] = 0（当n趋近于无穷大的时候，a除以n的极限是零）

(1/3)+(2/3) = 1

(9/10)+(9/10的平方)+...(9/10的n次方) 并且这里的n=1,2,3.....∞

# 每日一个学科小知识点

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# 两角和差的三角函数

$\cos(a-b)=?$

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# 喵宅苑markdown编辑器说明

### markdown的标题

1. 彩色的标题栏目，在 行首 的标题前面使用井号，并在后面带一个空格 例如：# 我是标题

# 我是标题

2. 多个井号可以区分不同的颜色例如：## 我是黄色标题

## 我是黄色标题

### markdown的表格

markdown编辑器是支持表格的，你可以使用这样的方式创建一个表格：

| 表头1 | 表头2 |
| - - - - | - - - - |
| 信息   |信息   |
| 信息   | 信息  |

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Ripple_95

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NoSQL 特点：1.没有sql语句，2数据库全部是没有关系，3字段数全动态

mySQL特点：1.规定sql格式，2.基本上库之间都是有关联，3.字段固定

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# 我们来谈谈比例

# 我们来谈谈比例

## 首先我们思考一些问题

1. 还记的比例的基本性质吗？无论你是否能够很快的回顾起来，现在请画一个三角形，用一条和底边平行的直线切割这个三角形，然后利用相似三角形的原理分析其中的边角关系，然后分析其中的比例关系，它们便是比例的基本性质。

2. 回忆化学中学过的物质的量的相关运算，你能运用上面回顾的比例的基本性质推导一些结论吗？请将分析过程截图。

3. 你还记得弧度制的定义吗？我们规定“在同圆或等圆中，弧长等于半径长的圆心角所对应的弧度数为1弧度”，仔细思考你今天所熟练运用的弧度制运算，你能明白这样规定的好处吗？圆周率π是周长和直径的比值，弧度是弧长和半径的比值，你能发现这之间的联系吗？

4. 联系问题2，和问题3，你能彻底明白将碳原子的微粒数为基准来衡量其它物质的微粒数的“物质的量”的定义吗？

5. 请自己编写一个关于比例和实际生活的思考题。

### 物质的量

【物质的量】

= 物质的实际质量 ÷ 物质的摩尔质量
= 气体的实际体积 ÷ 气体的摩尔体积
= 溶液体积 * 溶液里溶质的物质的量浓度

(物质的实际质量 + 物质的实际体积)
÷(物质的摩尔质量 + 物质的摩尔体积)
= NA

(物质的实际质量 + 物质的摩尔质量) ÷ (物质的摩尔质量-物质的摩尔质量)
= (物质的实际体积 + 物质的摩尔体积) ÷ (物质的实际体积 - 物质的摩尔体积)

# 对“单位”的再认识

# 对“单位”的再认识

（一块致密的固体在地球表面附近从静止状态自由落下，下落的头t秒中下落英尺数为：$y=16t^{2}$

$y=f(x)$

$平均速度 = \frac{\Delta{y}}{\Delta{x}} = \frac{f(2)-f(0)}{2-0} = 32 英尺/秒$

$1英尺 = 0.3米$
$1秒 = \frac{1}{60}分钟$

$\frac{1英尺}{1秒} = \frac{0.3米}{\frac{1}{60}分钟}$

$g(x) = 32\times\frac{1英尺}{1秒} = 32 \times \frac{0.3米}{\frac{1}{60}分钟}$

$g(x) = \frac{32\times3}{\frac{1}{6}}\frac{米}{分钟} = 576米/分钟$

$10x = 10颗$ （葡萄）

$5x = 5米$
$5x = 5分钟$
$x = 某单位$

# 两个基本原理与排列组合

== 停 ==